Wednesday, June 29, 2005


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Many verbs are regular: to obtain the preterit or the past participle, you only have to add -ed or only -d behind the verbal base:BV+ed
ex: to wash / washed / washed
to bargain / bargained / bargained
! to solidify / solidified / solidified
But, you must know your irregular verbs because more

1)you will use the preterit : Ved (the second column) to talk about the past
(yesterday, last year, in 2004, when you were young, in the old days, before 9/11,... all those are expressions indicating the preterit...on parlera des marqueurs du preterit en grammaire)

ex: Shakespeare lived under the reign of Elizabeth I and he died in 1616. He wrote the most famous comedies and tragedies.
2) you will use (the third column) the past participle Ven
(On l'appelle Ven parce qu'une une bonne trentaine de participes passés irréguliers se terminent par -en)
a) ALWAYS after HAVE (or has, had ...) to express the perfect. (marqueurs: since+date/ for+durée/already/ never/ever...)

- le present perfect (have/has+Ven) exprime un lien entre le passé et le présent.

ex: Shakespeare's plays have deeply influenced drama and since the 16th century, thousands of actors have acted as Othello, Hamlet, Romeo, and thousands of actresses as Desdemona, or Juliet. Have you ever seen a Shakespeare play?

- le past perfect (had+Ven dans une repère passé) exprime une action par rapport à un repère passé.

ex: My grand-mother saw Laurence Olivier on stage in 1948. She had never seen such a talented actor.
b)après BE pour le passif (or am, is ,are, was, were, have been, has been, had been...)

ex: Shakespeare's plays are played around the world and many books about him have been published worldwide.

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